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The “Cole Connection” continues: Katie, Libby maintain family volleyball tradition

first_img Inappropriate / Offensive Bestseller Bestseller Inappropriate / Offensive $4.99 By Jacob ArvidsonLocalSportsJournal.comGRAND HAVEN – The successful Grand Haven volleyball program has a lot going for it: A knowledgeable and passionate coach, a winning tradition, and a steady supply of talented, well-trained players.And then, of course, there’s the “Cole Connection.”Libby (left) and Katie Cole, twins who help spark the successful Grand Haven volleyball team.It started with Abby Cole, a star with the Grand Haven volleyball team who was runner-up for the Michigan Miss Volleyball award in 2012 and led the Bucs to the state semifinals.Abby has gone on to become a high-profile standout with the University of Michigan volleyball team, but her two younger sisters, twins Katie Cole and Libby Cole, are carrying on the family tradition at Grand Haven.Katie Cole, like her older sister, is a candidate for the Miss Volleyball Award, which goes to the top senior in the state. In September she was named one of the 10 finalists for the award, who are chosen by the Michigan Volleyball Coaches Association. Montague’s Emma Flagstead is also a finalist for the honor.While they share the distinction of being elite volleyball players, Katie is a much different player than her older sister Abby.Abby is much taller – 6-5 – and a powerful middle hitter who makes the booming shots that opponents can’t return. Katie, a 5-9 setter, is much more of a playmaker, with more than 3,000 assists in her varsity career.She’s more often the one who sets her teammates up to make the big hits.Katie has been piling up big numbers in her final season of varsity: 876 assists (11.1 assists per set average), 219 digs, 56 kills and 50 aces.“Abby was the one you looked to for the big kill,” said Grand Haven volleyball coach Aaron Smaka. “Katie is the one who’s going to make all the decisions, and I think that’s a pretty significant difference.“Katie runs the offense. She’s the quarterback of the team. She’s always talking and she’s really one of the most selfless players I’ve ever coached. She wants to do things to make the team better.“She has learned scenarios where her hitters are getting hot, and she knows when to go to them. Her recognition of situations and her blocking – she has just learned to do things. And from an offensive standpoint she knows when it’s time to just go get it.”Cole is surrounded by a lot of skilled teammates, including eight other seniors from last year’s team, which won conference and district titles and advanced to regionals.With so much returning talent, the Bucs are having another predictably strong season, with a 33-8 overall record as of last week.“We’re a really well-balanced and deep team,” Smaka said. “When I look at Morgan Ross, Sophia Newhouse, Katie Cole, Claire Holman, and Libby Cole, those are five players who are three-year varsity players. They do an outstanding job for us.”Katie said she was more of an introvert when she started playing varsity as a sophomore. But now she plays a strong leadership role, and enjoys working closely with her teammates.“My favorite part about volleyball is building connections with my teammates,” Katie said. “That just makes everything way more enjoyable when you have that.”She particularly enjoys playing alongside her sister, Libby – so much, in fact, that they are going to remain teammates in college. Both are committed to studying and playing volleyball next year at Indiana Wesleyan University.“She’s my best friend in the whole entire world,” Katie said about Libby. “We do everything together. When we’re on the court we have such a good connection. I just love doing everything with her.”Katie wasn’t able to play volleyball with Libby for the entire season last year.That’s because Libby, an outside hitter/libero, tore her ACL and had to miss the second half of her junior season.She worked hard to rehab in the offseason following surgery, and was back on the court by the beginning of this season, giving Grand Haven a full complement of weapons to compete in the very tough O-K Red Conference.“She’s getting stronger and stronger all the time, which is good,” Smaka said about Libby. “She is having a good year. She is a heck of a great player and an even greater person.”Libby said she and Katie started playing volleyball together in the sixth grade, after watching their older sister Abby stand out on the court.“We didn’t really know what volleyball was until she started playing it,” Libby said. “After that she was a great role model. We always loved going to her games and cheering her on.”Libby said there was no chance that she and Katie would choose to attend separate colleges.“We’re really close,” she said. “I don’t think we’d handle it well at all.”Smaka said the Coles’ college coach is going to be getting a winning combination.“They are great kids who really care about the team,” he said. “They are going to make any program better. I think they’ll both step in and have an immediate impact – whether they’re on the floor or not – on the culture of the team that they join.” Inappropriate / Offensive Not relevant Wilson Soft Play Volleyball (EA) Thank you! This will help us improve your ad experience. We will try not to show you such ads again. Add Comments (Max 320 characters) × Inappropriate / Offensive (1179) Shop Related Products (1740) Add Comments (Max 320 characters) Displayed poorly ENDS IN Displayed poorly DEAL OF THE DAY Thank you! This will help us improve your ad experience. We will try not to show you such ads again. × Displayed poorly ENDS IN ENDS IN (5918) Displayed poorly Other Share × Ads by Amazon $8.97$19.99 Thank you! This will help us improve your ad experience. We will try not to show you such ads again. DEAL OF THE DAY Other Add Comments (Max 320 characters) × Downton Abbey: Original UK Version Episode 1 Thank you! This will help us improve your ad experience. We will try not to show you such ads again. Report a problem This item is… Bestseller Bestseller Report a problem This item is… $36.98$39.99 Other Not relevant Ads by Amazon Report a problem This item is… Varsity Blues Add Comments (Max 320 characters) (44701) Not relevant Other Report a problem This item is… Shares Share Tachikara SV5WSC Sensi-Tec Composi… 0 $1.99 Not relevant Mail DEAL OF THE DAY DEAL OF THE DAY ENDS IN last_img read more

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Diego Maradona slammed for obscene gesture during Argentina vs Nigeria

first_imgDiego Maradona was once again in the news for wrong reasons during the Argentina vs Nigeria match at the FIFA World Cup 2018 on Tuesday.As Lionel Messi and Marcos Rojo scored a goal each to carry Argentina through to the last 16, Maradona was spotted making obscene gestures towards the crowd at the St. Petersburg Stadium.Maradona was captured by television cameras flicking his middle fingers towards the crowd and celebrating wildly as Argentina beat Nigeria 2-1. The winner came just minutes before the South Americans were staring at a group stage elimination from the finals.The 57-year-old was also treated by paramedics and was taken to the hospital after he collapsed in his seat.2018 FIFA WORLD CUP: FULL COVERAGEMaradona’s obscene gesture towards the Nigerian fans, which the TV captured, was slammed by one and all on social media.From TV pundits to regular viewers, Diego Maradona faced the wrath for being disrespectful towards people and not being a “gracious winner”.WORLD CUP 2018 – FIXTURES | POINTS TABLEPeople expressed their views on social media saying it was hard to warm up to Argentina because of Maradona’s disgraceful acts.#NGAARGArgentina’s Legend and former drug addict Diego Maradona showed Nigerian fans(Africans) the middle finger after Rojo scored.He is always pathetic! Will never be PELE class! pic.twitter.com/b9J6Ts3ngAJOE MUHAHAMI (@Muhahami) June 27, 2018Maradona raised a middle finger to us and you still supported Argentina, You people are crazy, you people are mad and only God can help youadvertisementThe Naija Spirit (@its_hammadrabiu) June 26, 2018Maradona giving the middle finger. Mate, you need to give the middle finger to your dealer & back to rehab. You look a mess. You fucking cocaine addictEl Cerebro (@tuale_CA) June 26, 2018Maradona legit screamed PUTA and showed his middle finger. The kind of respect he shows to the audience is the sole reason why he shouldnt be shown on TV because NO ONE WANTS TO SEE HIM.khawla (@K_Blaugrana) June 26, 2018Dear Messi,You’re still my GOAT and I hope you score in the next match. I hope your team LOSES however though. FIFA sold you this match & Maradona gave us the middle finger. I’ll have a very big smile on my face when he goes crazy after you lose against France. pic.twitter.com/KYQPTXurkHBashiru Ismail Babatunde (@bashy_io) June 26, 2018Seeing that obnoxious Maradona sticking the middle finger up when Argentina got their winner, what a throughly difficult team to warm to pic.twitter.com/xAOFh1YtdCIan Abrahams (Moose) (@BroadcastMoose) June 26, 2018Las las Maradona will dieHow can he show the middle finger to a whole NationDumebi (@dumebi_ok) June 26, 2018Is Maradona this stupid to show the middle finger on live TV? Just lost all respect for himKwame Kusi Akuamoah Boateng (Bad Breed) (@FreddyBeeMusik) June 26, 2018But come to think of it o, Maradona is an agbaya! What was that middle finger all about?!!! Take your win and go home! Mcheeeeeeeeeewwwwwww Not a gracious winner!Omoni Oboli (@Omonioboli) June 26, 2018Is it okay to talk about Maradona’s raised middle finger from last night? I think he deserves to be banned from all football arenas for this shameful act. pic.twitter.com/hOUAVRpBJiWallflower (@BiyiToluwalase) June 27, 2018Maradona is an awful human being…….. #JustSayingMichael Vaughan (@MichaelVaughan) June 26, 2018Maradona was the greatest footballer of my youth. Now he appears to be the joke cutaway of choice for tv directors. Not that he helps himself but sad.Mark Chapman (@markchapman) June 26, 2018Gary Lineker, who was doing punditry for BBC, said, “There’s Diego Maradona celebrating. I think there’s a danger he’s becoming a laughing stock I’m afraid.”[He had] let himself down with that celebration. You understand how he’s euphoric, but this kind of reaction… really, Diego?”Former England star Rio Ferdinand was also not impressed by Maradona.”His career as a football player on the pitch was up there with the best, but unfortunately there are moments like this that do arrive. It is not nice to see that,” he said.Also read – Diego Maradona hospitalised after Argentina vs Nigeria match at World CupHowever, this was not the first time that the Argentina great has hogged the limelight for all wrong reasons.Maradona was accused of making racist gesture towards the South Korean fans during Argentina’s 1-1 draw with Iceland on June 16.According to broadcaster Jacqui Oatley, Maradona responded to South Korea fans calling his name.Also read – Diego Maradona says he’s ‘fine’ after being treated by paramedicsadvertisementMaradona “obliged with a smile, kiss and wave. Then pulled his eyes to the side in a clearly racist gesture,” he tweeted.On Maradona’s Facebook account a message was posted early Sunday in Spanish, English and Italian seeking to explain the incident, which seemed to break FIFA anti-discrimination rules.”I understand better than anyone that in the World Cup people are looking for news everywhere,” Maradona wrote, adding that he saw “an Asian boy wearing an Argentina T-shirt.”Also read – World Cup 2018: Nigeria eliminated by Argentina, fans heartbroken”I, from afar, tried to tell them how nice it seemed to me that even the Asians cheer for us. And that’s all, guys, come on.”Maradona also apologized on Facebook for smoking a cigar during that Saturday, despite a FIFA ban on smoking at World Cup stadiums.”Everyone has their way of feeling things,” he wrote, citing tension at the game. “I honestly did not know that no one can smoke in the stadiums.”(With inputs from agencies)last_img read more

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Talking Horses: Chaos after wrong horse named winner at Sandown

first_img6pm: Wrong result fiasco returns to blight sportRacing’s ruling body has declined to comment on the future of a racecourse judge who has announced the wrong winner of a photo-finish for the third time.Felix Wheeler told racegoers at Sandown on Friday that Rio Ronaldo had prevailed by a nose in the opening sprint but had to correct himself minutes later after an intervention by stewards, who pointed out that Vibrant Chords was clearly shown to be the winner by the photo print.Although the ‘weighed in’ announcement was not made until after the correction, racecourse bookmakers had started to pay out on Rio Ronaldo as soon as the result was declared, as is common practice. At least two bookmakers reckoned that paying out on both horses would cost them a four-figure sum, on the basis Rio Ronaldo’s backers were unlikely to return their illegitimate winnings. It so happens that my nap on Friday is still waiting for his first win on turf, having scored three times out of four on the all-weather. But I think fast turf is fine for Melting Dew (4.05), a progressive Sir Michael Stoute four-year-old who’s a 7-2 shot for the 10-furlong handicap.He was game at Chelmsford last time, his second run of the year, and it looks like the drop back to this trip has been helpful. He’s still on a winning mark if able to show his best form here, with Ryan Moore riding him for the first time this year.Earlier, a drop back in trip might also be good news for Barbill (1.50), a speedy Mick Channon juvenile who faded in the final furlong of the Coventry when last seen. He won easily despite a slow start over five furlongs at Bath on his debut and I hope to see some of that raw speed here. He’s overlooked at 8-1 in a small field.David Pipe has had a couple of recent winners and I’ll take a chance on his It’s Obvious (4.30) at Newton Abbot. He was fancied for a similar race there last month but fared poorly on his first run back from wind surgery. At 12-1, I’ll take a chance that he’ll be sharper this time, though it could be that the grey is going to need a slower surface. The Recap: sign up for the best of the Guardian’s sport coverage Thank you for your feedback. John Gosden says O’Brien has ‘spiced up’ Eclipse by running Saxon Warrior Read more Talking Horses features Hide Quick guide Friday tips Read more Share on Pinterest Sandown 1.20 Rio Ronaldo 1.50 Barbill 2.25 Alrajaa 3.00 King Of Comedy 3.30 Mustashry (nb) 4.05 Melting Dew (nap) 4.40 Saroog 5.15 BioticDoncaster 1.30 Teepee Time 2.05 Rainbow Girl 2.40 Sayf Shamal 3.10 Poet’s Society 3.45 Asoof 4.20 Polish 4.50 GarbanzoNewton Abbot 1.40 Ballydun Oscar 2.15 Mr Mafia 2.50 Hidden Charmer 3.20 GI Jayne 3.55 Thahab Ifraj 4.30 It’s Obvious 5.05 Full BoreChelmsford 5.10 Chance 5.45 Stosur 6.20 Honey Man 6.55 Iron Dove 7.30 Global Conqueror 8.05 Romaana 8.40 Aleef 9.15 Trouble And Strife Beverley 6.00 Arcane Dancer 6.35 Rapture 7.10 Viscount Loftus 7.45 Delph Crescent 8.20 Claramara 8.50 Mr Strutter Haydock 6.15 Juneau 6.45 Iconic Choice 7.20 Auxerre 7.55 Hakeem 8.30 Kraka 9.05 Mountain Peak Was this helpful? The syndicate members who own Rio Ronaldo were celebrating when the bad news was broken to them. “When you get that far down the road of being involved with a winner, you feel to some extent cheated that it hasn’t played out as you expected it to,” said Paul Arlotte, one of their number. However, there was nothing resembling an apology from the British Horseracing Authority, Wheeler’s employers, which instead issued a statement claiming the mess was a success for their new verification system. Without that, Wheeler’s mistake might not have been acknowledged until some days later, as indeed was the case when he made similar mistakes in March this year and December 2015.The reaction from many onlookers was to the effect that perhaps no verdict should be announced until it had been verified. Many also suggested Wheeler should be found some other job to do but the BHA declined to comment, on the grounds that that was an internal employment matter.Brant Dunshea, the BHA’s chief regulatory officer, said: “The priority is to ensure the result is called correctly first time round. However, a new system was put in place this week which ensures a verification check by the stewards of any photo finish call. That procedure has identified that the initial result was not called correctly and therefore the stewards asked the judge to clarify his decision. This resulted in the decision being amended prior to the ‘weighed in’ being announced. The new procedure has therefore worked as intended.“We appreciate that there is a period whereby those connected with the horse who placed second will have thought they had won. This is not ideal and why we must focus on getting the result correct first time.” Share on LinkedIn Racing UK (@Racing_UK)Controversy after the first race @Sandownpark – Rio Ronaldo (13-2) was initially called the winner of the London Insurance Day Handicap and then minutes later the result was amended calling Vibrant Chords (6-1) the winner.What are your views? pic.twitter.com/E8xSjWB9UaJuly 6, 2018 Share via Email Friday’s best betsSandown is going to be baking for its fixtures on Friday and Saturday. Temperatures are due to peak at 28C on both days and Andrew Cooper, clerk of the course, says he has never known such a prolonged dry and hot spell since he started in 1990.“We had basically no rainfall in June,” he told me. “We’ve had months in the past when we might only have had 6mm or something like that. The last meaningful rain we saw was during Derby week.”After the Eclipse crowds have left on Saturday, Cooper would really like to see some rain. “Crikey, you’d take anything,” he said. “Everything will benefit from it. We could do with a double-figure amount of rain at least.”Instinctively as a punter, I find myself looking for fast-ground horses with a turn of foot. You’d imagine that would be the only way to go after a month of such weather. But on my Twitter timeline there’s a hard-working analyst suggesting the race-times at Newmarket last weekend equated to good to soft going, so it’s always worth having a look at the early races and the times they’re run in before taking a view. Horse racing tips Share on Facebook Show … we have a small favour to ask. More people, like you, are reading and supporting the Guardian’s independent, investigative journalism than ever before. And unlike many news organisations, we made the choice to keep our reporting open for all, regardless of where they live or what they can afford to pay.The Guardian will engage with the most critical issues of our time – from the escalating climate catastrophe to widespread inequality to the influence of big tech on our lives. At a time when factual information is a necessity, we believe that each of us, around the world, deserves access to accurate reporting with integrity at its heart.Our editorial independence means we set our own agenda and voice our own opinions. Guardian journalism is free from commercial and political bias and not influenced by billionaire owners or shareholders. This means we can give a voice to those less heard, explore where others turn away, and rigorously challenge those in power.We hope you will consider supporting us today. We need your support to keep delivering quality journalism that’s open and independent. Every reader contribution, however big or small, is so valuable. Support The Guardian from as little as $1 – and it only takes a minute. Thank you. Topics Horse racing Reuse this content Share on Twitter Since you’re here… Support The Guardian Share on Messenger Share on WhatsApplast_img read more

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The Packers Need To Depend On Aaron … Jones

Aaron Rodgers is arguably the greatest quarterback of all time,1By career quarterback passer rating, he is. so it’s hard to imagine that there could ever be too much Rodgers in a game plan. Yet this seemed to be the problem for Mike McCarthy and Green Bay through the first nine weeks of the season. On Sunday, though, the Packers flipped the script for a 31-12 victory against the Miami Dolphins, a win keyed by one of the best rushing performances in the Rodgers era.The Packers entered Week 10 last in the NFL in share of running plays on first down (39.6 percent) despite being second in the league in play success on those runs (48.5 percent).2A successful first-down play is defined as getting a first down or touchdown or gaining at least 40 percent of the yardage needed to convert a first down. But on Sunday, they ran on more than half of their first downs (51.85 percent) and gained 142 yards on their 14 carries, including 117 yards on nine carries by Aaron Jones.Even with their Week 10 performance, the Packers still stand out when we juxtapose how often they run on first down with how well they run: On Sunday, the Packers weren’t just taking advantage of a soft run defense to make this kind of structural change: Miami entered the game in the middle of the pack in play success allowed to opponents running on first down. Instead, a renewed focus on the run has been in the works in Green Bay for several weeks.Just giving the ball to Jones was a massive step in the right direction for Green Bay. He only recently became the Packers’ primary running back. After serving a suspension the first two games of the year for a substance abuse violation, Jones split snaps with Ty Montgomery and Jamaal Williams largely because of the Packers’ passing emphasis. McCarthy saw him as an incomplete running back because of his shortcomings as a blocker and as a receiving threat.“There’s more to playing the position than just running the football,” McCarthy said in early October. And that’s especially true if running the football is not remotely a point of emphasis for a team.But that’s changing now. And why shouldn’t it? Let’s compare the first 19 games of Aaron Jones’s career to the first 19 games of another back with a Hall of Fame quarterback who ended up changing his team’s scheme:Jones: 154 carries for 942 yards (6.12 yards per rush), 8 rushing TDsAlvin Kamara: 157 carries for 869 yards (5.54 yards per rush), 10 rushing TDsWhile NFL teams generally run too much — especially on first down — it’s a problem specifically when defenses are geared to stop the run. But that’s not the case for teams facing Green Bay. Like Kamara and the Saints last year, Jones has a quarterback whom defenses fear so much that they don’t dare put an extra defender in the box to stuff the running back.This season, the Packers have faced eight or more defenders in the box on first down just eight times in 272 snaps, a league-low rate of 2.94 percent (8.75 percent is average). Defenses are pretty much willing to concede the run — similar to how teams defend the Los Angeles Rams, who face stacked boxes almost as infrequently (3.8 percent). But the Rams, who are the only team better than the Packers in rushing success rate (51.1 percent), run the ball on first down 56.3 percent of the time, including 49.4 percent in the first half, when the score of the game is less likely to influence these play calls.Can the Packers, at 4-4-1, maintain this newfound offensive balance and ride their running ways to the postseason? Their first test will be Thursday at Seattle before they travel to Minnesota in Week 12 in a game that could determine an NFC wild-card spot. The promos and advertisements for that Sunday Night Football contest will spotlight Aaron Rodgers, but the Packers featuring less of him may be the key to getting that victory.Check out our latest NFL predictions. read more

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Sex among eukaryotes is far more common than once believed

first_img Citation: Sex among eukaryotes is far more common than once believed (2015, July 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-07-sex-eukaryotes-common-believed.html The paper, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, points out that sex in multicellular organisms is simply clonal cell propagation among physically linked cells. “Hence,” the researchers write, “from the perspective of cell lineage, sex in multicellular organisms is as episodic as it is in facultatively sexual unicellular eukaryotes.” The authors’ emphatic conclusion is that “sex is a ubiquitous, ancient, and inherent attribute of eukaryotic life.”Notably, the paper emphasizes that zoologists would be aghast at the absence of observed sex, while microbiologists are far more receptive to the lack of sex in protists. Many protist groups, including ciliates and green algae, propagate via sex, but direct observation of those processes is lacking for the vast majority. Indeed, there are entire lineages of protists for which no evidence of sex processes exists. However, the authors screened scientific literature to find individual “signs of sex” in eukaryotic lineages, including physical observation of cell fusion or nuclear fusion, genetic evidence of meiosis or recombination, or changes in ploidy levels over the life cycle.Among the individuals screened, Jakobida, Glaucophyta, and Malawaimonadida—putatively asexual eukaryotes— were all found to contain genes involved in gamete fusion and/or nuclear fusion. The authors suggest that sex among unicellular eukaryotes is likely to be far more common than currently believed, and the lack of evidence of sexual propagation attributable to the difficulty of microbiological observation. Highlighting this difficulty, they point out a famous example of a particular type of algae with two morphologically different life cycle stages, which had been wrongly considered to be two separate species. What we don’t know about protist life forms still vastly outweighs what we’ve discovered. “…(W)e still have a tendency to underestimate how widespread sexual practices are in the different eukaryotic groups,” the authors write. Further, genome sequencing now supports the fundamentally sexual nature of eukaryotes. The authors cite numerous examples of putatively asexual eukaryotes found to express genetic traits associated with sex propagation. Giardia intestinalis was assumed to be asexual until genomic inspection revealed allelic differences indicative of sex. “The list of eukaryotic species that lack strong direct evidence for meiotic sex, but that seem sexual, as suggested by the presence of these meiosis-associated genes, is growing longer and longer,” the authors write.There are numerous adaptive benefits to sex: It creates genetic variation, repairs DNA breaks, and prevents the accumulation of disadvantageous mutations. Sexual reproduction is also associated with species survival during adverse periods. Because of these advantages, the authors suggest, even asexual species overwhelmingly retain the option for meiotic sex propagation, even despite some of the disadvantages of sex for protists.The paper goes on to speculate on the possibility that the evolution of meiotic sex was a defensive response to DNA-damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, and considers the possible influence of endosymbiotic organisms like chloroplasts and mitochondria on the evolution of sex. (Phys.org)—For a long time, biologists have considered sex to be an inherent trait of multicellular life, while microbial eukaryotes were considered to be either optionally sexual or purely clonal. From this perspective, clonality in eukaryotes is seen as exceptional. However, a group of researchers Europe and Canada have recently published a paper examining this broad distinction more closely, and have suggested that it appears to stem from an improper comparison of unicellular and multicellular species. Explore further Sexual assaults less likely in neighborhoods where registered sex offenders live More information: “Sex is a ubiquitous, ancient, and inherent attribute of eukaryotic life.” PNAS 2015 112 (29) 8827-8834; published ahead of print July 21, 2015, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1501725112AbstractSexual reproduction and clonality in eukaryotes are mostly seen as exclusive, the latter being rather exceptional. This view might be biased by focusing almost exclusively on metazoans. We analyze and discuss reproduction in the context of extant eukaryotic diversity, paying special attention to protists. We present results of phylogenetically extended searches for homologs of two proteins functioning in cell and nuclear fusion, respectively (HAP2 and GEX1), providing indirect evidence for these processes in several eukaryotic lineages where sex has not been observed yet. We argue that (i) the debate on the relative significance of sex and clonality in eukaryotes is confounded by not appropriately distinguishing multicellular and unicellular organisms; (ii) eukaryotic sex is extremely widespread and already present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor; and (iii) the general mode of existence of eukaryotes is best described by clonally propagating cell lines with episodic sex triggered by external or internal clues. However, important questions concern the relative longevity of true clonal species (i.e., species not able to return to sexual procreation anymore). Long-lived clonal species seem strikingly rare. We analyze their properties in the light of meiotic sex development from existing prokaryotic repair mechanisms. Based on these considerations, we speculate that eukaryotic sex likely developed as a cellular survival strategy, possibly in the context of internal reactive oxygen species stress generated by a (proto) mitochondrion. Thus, in the context of the symbiogenic model of eukaryotic origin, sex might directly result from the very evolutionary mode by which eukaryotic cells arose.center_img Representatives of deep eukaryotic lineages without published evidence for sex thus far. (A) Picomonas judraskeda (Picozoa). (B) Andalucia incarcerata and another, thus far undescribed jakobid (Jakobida). (C) Ancyromonas sigmoides (Ancyromonadida). (D) Roombia truncata (Katablepharida). (E) Breviata anathema (Breviatea). (F) Telonema subtilis (Telonemia). (G) An undescribed malawimonad (Malawimonadida). Images courtesy of Petr Táborský (B), Aaron Heiss (C, E, and G), and Akinori Yabuki (F); A and D were adapted from refs. 118 and 120. (Scale bars, 5 μm.) Credit: PNAS 2015 112 (29) 8827-8834; published ahead of print July 21, 2015, doi:10.1073/pnas.1501725112 Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences © 2015 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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