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Corporal punishment of children linked to lower school grades

first_imgDebates on whether the use of physical force to discipline children is ever acceptable have once again been reignited with legislation passed in Ireland in early November to remove the defence of “reasonable chastisement” for corporal punishment.In new research conducted by the Young Lives study at the University of Oxford using longitudinal data from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam, we found that children who experienced corporal punishment performed worse in maths, four years later. The research was part of UNICEF’s Multi Country Study on the Drivers of Violence Affecting Children.The use of physical punishment, such as smacking, slapping or hitting with a hand or implement, is contrary to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which has been ratified by all states except the US. Yet only 47 countries have, like Ireland, introduced legislation to protect children from corporal punishment in all settings, including the home and school. Share on Twitter Corporal punishment excites strong points of view. Proponents argue that “mild” or “moderate” forms of corporal punishment are an effective and non-detrimental means of instilling discipline and obedience into children. When talking about my research on corporal punishment I often encounter the response: “I was hit and it never did me any harm”. Opponents stress the hypocrisy of laws that do not extend the same protection to children as is afforded to adults.Negative impact on gradesWhen focusing on children’s school performance, we are not losing sight of the fact that children do on occasions die or are severely injured as a result of corporal punishment. But evidence on whether more “everyday” or “routinised” forms of corporal punishment have lasting effects on children’s development is limited.Studies typically rely on cross-sectional data where child development measures are collected at the same time as reports of corporal punishment. It is then difficult to separate out what comes first: children may perform less well as school because they are hit, or children may be punished because of poor performance.While we cannot prove causality, the Young Lives data allows us to analyse the links between earlier experience of corporal punishment and how children were performing four years later in school. The longitudinal data also allow us to control for a series of other possible explanations that might affect children’s school performance.We found that children who reported experiencing corporal punishment at age eight had on average significantly lower maths scores at age 12 in India, Peru and Vietnam. The size of the negative effect was large.To put our results into context, it is well-established that children with more highly educated parents have better educational outcomes. The associated negative effect of corporal punishment on children’s outcomes was equivalent to the child’s primary caregiver, usually the mother, having between three and six years less education, depending on the country.Who is most at riskLarge numbers of children are also affected despite legal prohibition of corporal punishment in schools in India, Ethiopia and Vietnam, and a statement of norms discouraging its use in schools in Peru. Among children we surveyed who were eight-years-old, over half of those in Peru and Vietnam, three-quarters in Ethiopia, and nearly all children in India reported witnessing a teacher administering corporal punishment in the last week.Younger children are at greater risk, with the incidence of corporal punishment at age eight more than double the rate reported by 15-year-olds, in all four countries. Boys are significantly more likely to report experiencing corporal punishment than girls across the four countries. This adds to the growing global picture on the greater vulnerability of boys to physical punishment. But it’s important to note that girls are often at greater risk of other forms of humiliating treatment and sexual violence.We also found that children from more disadvantaged households were significantly more likely to be punished in India, Peru and Vietnam compared to children living in more advantaged households in the same community. When comparing children in the same school, disadvantaged children in India and Vietnam are significantly more likely to be punished than their more advantaged peers.Other Young Lives research indicates a number of reasons why poor children experience more corporal punishment, including being punished for lacking school materials and frequent absence in order to undertake work for the household.Corporal punishment not only violates children’s fundamental rights to dignity and bodily integrity, but by impacting upon their engagement with schooling it has the potential to have long-lasting implications for their life chances and can reinforce inequality.Legislation is an important first step towards eradicating corporal punishment, but on its own is not sufficient. Greater attention is required to understand why bans are not implemented, to support positive teaching practices and to work to address social norms that sustain the myth that physical violence promotes children’s learning and development.By Kirrily Pells, Policy Officer, Young Lives Study, University of OxfordThis article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article. Pinterest Share on Facebookcenter_img Email LinkedIn Sharelast_img read more

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New Ebola vaccine forecast sees earlier start for big trials

first_imgIn the wake of a meeting yesterday, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced today that a large efficacy trial of the two leading Ebola candidate vaccines may start in Liberia in December, a month earlier than the agency predicted just 3 days ago.”We’re talking about now starting in December and not January,” Marie-Paule Kieny, PhD, told reporters at a press conference in Geneva. Citing an urgent vaccine development push by manufacturers, governments, and other partners, she added, “It shows how everything is pushed forward and the massive effort by everybody.”Kieny, the WHO’s assistant director-general for health systems and innovation, also said hundreds of thousands of doses of Ebola vaccine may be available by June 2015, although that doesn’t mean that mass vaccinations in West Africa could begin by that time.Her announcement followed a meeting yesterday involving officials from Ebola-affected countries, governments sponsoring vaccine development, pharmaceutical companies, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs).Small phase 1 trials of the two most advanced vaccines are already under way or about to start at several sites, with results expected in December, Kieny noted, echoing previous statements. The trials aim to assess the vaccines’ safety and immunogenicity at different doses.”All is put in place by all partners to start efficacy trials in affected countries as early as December 2014,” she said. She said the trials could involve 20,000 to 30,000 volunteers, some of whom would receive a control vaccine rather than an Ebola vaccine, an approach that’s likely to be controversial.In a press release, the WHO said the efficacy trial protocols will be “adapted to take into consideration safety and immunogenicity results as they become available.”Multiple vaccines in pipelineOne of the two leading candidate vaccines was developed by the US government in partnership with GSK, and the other was created by the Public Health Agency of Canada and has been licensed to NewLink Genetics Corp., Ames, Iowa.The US-GSK vaccine, known as ChAd3 ZEBOV, uses a chimpanzee adenovirus with a Zaire Ebola virus gene spliced into it, while the Canadian vaccine uses a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to carry an Ebola gene and is called VSV-ZEBOV.Close behind those two products in the development race, said Kieny, are at least five other experimental Ebola vaccines, which she expects will be in clinical trials in the early months of 2015.The companies developing the Ebola vaccines “are committing to ramping up the production capacity to millions of doses to be available in 2015, with hundreds of thousands ready in the first half of next year,” she said. “To make this a reality, regulatory authorities in countries where the vaccines are made and in Africa will need to work closely with manufacturers on extremely short timelines to overcome a number of hurdles in the licensing and regulation of the vaccines.”Kieny also said community engagement to promote acceptance of the vaccines will be a key part of the Ebola vaccine enterprise. “Work should be scaled up urgently in partnership between local communities, national governments, NGOs and international organizations,” the WHO release put it.Although the timing is hard to predict, officials hope to have initial findings from the efficacy trials in hand around April of next year, said Kieny.Three-armed trial envisionedShe said the first efficacy trial is likely to be in Liberia, where plans call for a trial with three arms—one for each of the two Ebola vaccines and one for a control vaccine. Planning is also under way for a trial in Sierra Leone, with either two or three arms, she added.However, she also indicated there’s some doubt as to whether both of the leading vaccines will be ready to test in a large trial at the same time. She said that for the Canadian vaccine, much less is known about what an appropriate dose would be.There are no firm plans for a trial in Guinea at this point, Kieny said, commenting, “There seems to be less intense transmission in Guinea right now than in the other two countries, so we’re more focused on those.”She said it wouldn’t accomplish much to duplicate in Guinea a trial that’s being conducted elsewhere, but officials are discussing what questions an additional trial might address and how to go about doing it.Experts support placebo useSome medical experts and ethicists have argued against using a placebo control in the Ebola vaccine trials, saying it would be unethical to withhold a possibly protective vaccine from people who may be exposed to such a deadly disease.But Kieny said, “Most voices we hear are saying that for a vaccine trial, in view of the added speed that such a design requires in terms of demonstrating definite efficacy, this [a placebo] would be the preferred design.”Those who don’t receive an Ebola vaccine would get another vaccine (rather than a dummy injection), so they would have some benefit, and all the volunteers will be followed closely so they could receive early treatment if they get sick, she added.As for when mass vaccinations could begin in West Africa, Kieny indicated it’s unlikely but not impossible that that could happen before June. If a vaccine proves effective, if the epidemic curve justifies mass vaccination, and if enough doses were available, it could happen, she said.She also commented that an effective vaccine might make an impact on the epidemic even if the kinds of responses now under way succeed in reversing the disease’s spread before a vaccine is available in quantity.In other comments, Kieny said:Given that safety information on the Ebola vaccines will be limited, the United Kingdom has proposed establishing a fund to compensate anyone who is injured by an Ebola vaccine.A Russian representative at the WHO meeting said three Ebola vaccines are in development in Russia, based on an adenovirus, a lentivirus, and an attenuated influenza virus. One or more of these could be starting clinical trials soon.Healthcare workers will be among the first to receive an Ebola vaccine, but decisions have yet to be made about other priority groups. Modeling studies are  in progress to determine which groups should be targeted for maximum impact.Meanwhile, a media report today said that Russia has started producing a trial batch of a vaccine to be tested against Ebola virus in Africa.The head of Yunona Pharmaceutical Holdings, Aleksandr Petrov, said the vaccine would be sent to Africa “in the next few days” for testing, according to the report from Bernama, Malyasia’s national news agency. The story cited Russia’s Itar-Tass news agency as its source.Petrov said the vaccine, called Triazavirin, has been found to be effective against influenza, tick-borne encephalitis, and other viruses.See also: Audio recording of Oct 24 WHO briefing (note: may open slowly)Related Oct 21 CIDRAP News storyOct 24 Bernama storylast_img read more

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Saluting or women – Ms Magda Pollard, Madame Justice Desiree Bernard

first_img Mar 8, 2015 Mar 8, 2015 You may be interested in… Women leaders call for mainstreaming gender equality in… Share this on WhatsApp Mar 9, 2015 Mobile technology a lever for women’s empowerment Opinion: It’s time to step it up for gender equality Saluting our Women – Trinidad and Tobago PM Kamla… Share this:PrintTwitterFacebookLinkedInLike this:Like Loading… Mar 8, 2015last_img

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Manchester firm shut owing £738,000 to unsecured creditors

first_imgA personal injury firm has been shut down owing more than £560,000 to medical expert companies.The Solicitors Regulation Authority intervened yesterday to close Manchester-based Mendell Solicitors Limited to protect the interests of clients or former clients. The intervention also applies to the firm’s sole shareholder, Barrie Mendell.The decision follows the company entering voluntary liquidation earlier this month, with its registered address becoming that of Lancashire insolvency firm Leonard Curtis.A statement of the company’s affairs, published on 2 February, revealed the firm’s total outstanding debt was £738,000.The two major creditors are medical diagnosis agencies Speed Medical Examination Services Limited and Tri Star Medicals Limited, owed £421,431 and £141,057 respectively.Financial services firm the Wesleyan Assurance Society is owed £53,586, expert witness firm Laird Assessors is owed £34,516 and claims investigation company Ravenstone UK is owed £47,653. Four-figure sums are also owed to HM Revenue & Customs and Manchester City Council.The statement says that total assets come to just £30,625, which will be made available for unsecured creditors.According to a notice published on 8 February, a liquidation committee has been formed, with Speed Medical and Tri Star Medicals both sitting as members.last_img read more

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Renfe orders Alaris variant

first_imgSPANISH National Railways announced on May 25 that its Administrative Board had approved an order for 1435mm gauge regional high-speed trains from a consortium of Alstom and CAF. Designated I-250, the 20 trains will run at 250 to 270 km/h on routes up to 250 km long, such as Madrid – Puertollano, Madrid – Guadalajara, Zaragoza – Lleida and Barcelona – Lleida.The four-car non-tilting EMUs will be a variant of the Pendolino family, derived from the broad-gauge Alaris tilting trainsets supplied to Renfe by Alstom and Fiat Ferroviaria in 1998. Each car will have two asynchronous three-phase motors driving one axle on each bogie, giving a total rating of 4000 kW per train. There will be 31 Preferente and 205 Turista seats per unit, and full provision for mobility-impaired passengers.Total contract value is €440m, of which €228m is the capital cost and the rest covers maintenance of the fleet for 15 years. Alstom will supply the traction equipment and 50% of the mechanical elements from Italy and its plant in Barcelona, where final assembly is planned. H From June 10, Renfe has put into operation Talgo VII trainsets designated Altaria on the Madrid – Alicante route. Replacing older Talgo III sets, the new nine-coach trains are designed to run at 220 km/h. Each will carry 63 passengers in Preferente and 164 in Turista.last_img read more

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Pioneer Railcorp buys Maumee & Western Railroad

first_imgUSA: The Michigan Southern Railroad Co subsidiary of short line group Pioneer Railcorp completed the purchase of Maumee & Western Railroad Corp from RMW Ventures in late December. The 80 km line linking Woodburn, Indiana, and Liberty Center, Ohio, will be operated under the name Napoleon, Defiance & Western Railway.’We have purchased this line with the knowledge that it is in dire need of rehabilitation due to years of deferred maintenance’, said Mike Carr, President & CEO of Pioneer Railcorp. ‘Our objective is to rehabilitate the line in order to provide consistent freight rail service to all current and potential shippers utilising the line. We also plan to restore two sections of track, from Napoleon to Liberty Center and west of Defiance to Cecil, that would offer all shippers on the line connections to multiple Class I carriers for more competitive access to the North American rail system.’ Pioneer Railcorp owns 25 short line railways in 14 states totalling almost 1 000 km.last_img read more

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Recipe: Stuffed Sweet Potatoes

first_imgbrandpointcontent.com Stuffed Sweet PotatoesWhat you’ll need:2 Eggland’s Best eggs (large)2 sweet potatoes2 strips turkey bacon1/4 cup shredded cheddar cheese1 1/2 teaspoon salt1/2 teaspoon pepper1 tablespoon extra virgin olive oilWhat to do:Preheat your oven to 400 degrees F.Wash and scrub your sweet potatoes. Place on a baking sheet, pierce each potato a few times with a fork, and drizzle with extra virgin olive oil.Place in the oven and roast for 45 minutes.When sweet potatoes are finished, slice them in half lengthwise and let them cool.Scoop a bit of ‘meat’ out from the sweet potatoes to make room for the filling.In a small nonstick skillet over medium heat, place two strips of turkey bacon. Cook until bacon begins to brown and crisp up.Place a napkin on top of a small plate. When bacon is finished, place onto napkin to let grease soak out.Rinse the skillet and place back on the burner over medium heat.Place eggs in skillet and cook on medium-low for just a few minutes; ~3 minutes. Be sure not to overcook these eggs as they will continue cooking after removed from heat, and will be placed into the oven later on.Break eggs into four equal parts. Place each into the hollow parts of the sweet potatoes. Sprinkle each with salt and pepper.Break bacon apart with your hands into small pieces. Sprinkle over the eggs.Sprinkle cheese over top. Set your oven to broil on high. Place potatoes in the oven and broil for three minutes or until cheese is melted.last_img read more

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World faces ‘generational catastrophe’ on education,UN warns

first_imgUN warns of imminent catastrophe in South Sudan UN Chief Antonio Guterres.PHOTO/AP UN Chief Antonio Guterres.PHOTO/APU.N. Secretary-General Antonio Guterres now warns that the world faces a ‘’generational catastrophe’’ because of school closures amid the coronavirus pandemic.As of mid-July schools were closed in at least 160 countries affecting more than 1 billion students while at least 40 million children have missed out on pre-school. According to Guterres, getting students safely back to the classroom must be a ‘’top priority’’.“Now we face a generational catastrophe that could waste untold human potential, undermine decades of progress, and exacerbate entrenched inequalities,” said Guterres as he launched a U.N. “Save our Future” campaign.He further added that, “Consultation with parents, carers, teachers and young people is fundamental.”The U.N. recommendations for getting global education back on track come as U.S. President Donald Trump pushes for schools to reopen in the face of opposition from some teachers and parents while COVID-19 is surging in many parts of the country.Globally the coronavirus has infected at least 18.1 million people and there have been more than 689,000 known deaths worldwide.Related AU warns of Burundi ‘catastrophe’center_img World Bank offers 150 million USD to improve Ghana’s educationlast_img read more

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Harris to Exhibit Next-Gen Mission Critical Services at IWCE 2018

first_imgHarris Corporation will be showcasing its converged Land Mobile Radio (LMR) / LTE and DMR solutions for first responders at the upcoming International Wireless Communications Expo (IWCE) from 7 – 9 March in Orlando, Florida. As one of the pioneers in the market, Harris continues to invest in and develop converged LMR/LTE solutions. At the event, it will feature interoperable, future-ready solutions that help users gather data from the edge, improve situational awareness and stay connected to mission-critical applications.Harris’ showcase at IWCE 2018 will include: Click here to learn more about IWCE 2018. Mission-Critical Push-To-Talk (MCPTT) application, demonstrating Harris’ commitment to integrating 3GPP standards XL-185P and XL-200P, Harris’ LTE capable land mobile radios VIDA Enterprise Network Manager – Harris’ integrated network management platform that can detect and analyze problems before the end user is impacted Real-time streaming of video via a body worn camera enabled by the XL family of converged LTE/LMR portable radios Integration of Harris StatusAware location tracking to improve geospatial situational awareness Digital Mobile Radio (DMR) Tier 2 and Tier 3 solutions, powered by Tait Communications, including Harris TP9300 and TM9300 radios and UnifyVehiclelast_img read more

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Fast start launches No. 1 Kentucky past Auburn 110-75

first_imgLEXINGTON, Ky. (AP) — Top-ranked Kentucky manhandled Auburn at the start, shook off an early second-half lull and closed with a flourish that threatened a couple of milestones before the Wildcats matched the program’s longest winning streak.Good things happen when Kentucky seemingly can’t miss from the field.Karl-Anthony Towns scored 19 points to lead six Kentucky players in double figures, and the Wildcats recorded their highest scoring total since 2002 with a 110-75 blowout of Auburn on Saturday night that extended their best start ever. Kentucky also equaled the 1995-96 squad’s school-record 27-game winning streak, a performance that culminated with its sixth NCAA title.Kentucky (27-0, 14-0 Southeastern Conference ) surpassed 100 points each in preseason wins over lower-level Pikeville and Georgetown College but hadn’t scored at least 110 points in a regular-season game since beating Tennessee State 115-87 on Dec. 30, 2002. Aaron Harrison’s two free throws with 3:18 left broke the century mark in a game that was never in doubt as the Wildcats scored the first nine points and poured it on. He finished with 18.Dakari Johnson added 13 points, Andrew Harrison 12, Devin Booker 11 and Tyler Ulis 10, as Kentucky shot a season-best 65 percent from the field. The Wildcats dominated the paint 62-24, outrebounded the Tigers 44-22 and tied a season high with 25 assists.Though short of the 120 points Kentucky scored against Vanderbilt on Feb. 7, 1996, it was the Wildcats’ first 100-point game against a Southeastern Conference foe since beating Arkansas 101-70 on Jan. 23, 2010.“We cherish these moments,” said Towns, who also grabbed 10 rebounds and blocked four shots. “Not every game is going to be like this. We executed, played great defense and also made a lot of shots.”Antoine Mason scored a game-high 29 points including five 3-pointers for Auburn (12-15, 4-10), which lost for the eighth time in 11 games.The Wildcats’ was keeping SEC scoring leader K.T. Harrell (17.9 points per game) and teammates Cinmeon Bowers (13.1) and Mason (14.9) in check. Mason eventually warmed up from the perimeter to lead the Tigers’ 11-of-19 shooting from behind the arc while Harrell added 17 points, but neither contribution mattered against Kentucky.“The whole idea was you got to be on these three (players),” Kentucky coach John Calipari said. “They can score and they can score a bunch and they did. Mason had 29 and could have had more. Harrell had 17. … When they felt they could get baskets, they got into a comfort level and made shots. If you didn’t guard them, they were going to make shots.”Auburn didn’t make many early on in a long night for the Tigers and first-year coach Bruce Pearl.Kentucky sprinted to a 23-2 lead that eventually reached 27 points late in the first half. Until Jordon Granger’s jumper with 9:03 left made it 30-6, the Wildcats seemed headed toward surpassing their season-low seven first-half points allowed to UCLA in December. Kentucky only outscored Auburn 22-20 for the rest of the half but still led 52-26 at the break.“Any run they get is an advantage,” Mason said. “We didn’t start the game off like we wanted to and they hit us in our mouths first.”DELK HONOREDFormer Wildcats guard Tony Delk, named the 1996 Final Four’s Most Outstanding Player while leading Kentucky to its sixth NCAA title, had his No. 00 jersey retired in a halftime ceremony that also recognized gymnast Jenny Hanson. Asked if his title team could beat this year’s squad projected to possibly go unbeaten, the All-American answered that the teams are different but said, “they are long and athletic. I thought we were quicker. We had much better shooters. I will say that.”TIP-INSAuburn: The Tigers shot 42 percent from the field including 52 percent in the second half in which they were only outscored 58-49.Kentucky: After shooting 62 percent in the first half, the Wildcats made 23 of 34 (68 percent) in the second.UP NEXT:Auburn: Hosts LSU on Tuesday.Kentucky: Visits Mississippi State on Wednesday.last_img read more

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